Grease has a certain solubility for leather. At the same time, as a more viscous substance, oil is a big problem in the washing process. This article focuses on the compatibility of oil and leather. Static water absorption method: This method is the standard method stipulated in ISO 2417:2016: Put part A on the bottom of the Küber dish and add part B on the top and add distilled or deionized water at a fixed temperature; put the leather sample into the Kupper dish. Part B and record its scale value. Tilt the Kupper dish so that the sample is completely immersed in distilled or deionized water; after the sample is soaked for the specified time, lift up Part B of the Kupper dish so that all water flows into Part A to read it Scale value; compare the waterproofness of leather by calculating the amount of water absorption. Generally, when the leather stretches within 6 to 24 hours, the range is 15%, and the water absorption rate is less than 20%, indicating that the leather has good water resistance. The simplified test
method is (soaking method): weigh a leather sample of a fixed specification and immerse it in distilled water for 2 hours. Take out the leather sample and wipe off the water on the surface of the leather sample with filter paper. Weigh its weight before and after the leather is soaked. Change and calculate the water absorption (mass percentage) of the leather to evaluate its waterproof performance. Maeser-Tests: Maeser-Tests is the main testing method in North America. This method is a method formulated by the Physical Inspection Committee of the International Federation of Leather Craftsmen and Chemists Association: Place the leather sample with iron sheets and iron balls on the surface in a sink, and put water under the leather sample, install it and start the resistance The tortuosity tester performs a tortuous test. It passes the conductivity of iron and the conductivity of water. When a current is detected, the number of twists and turns is recorded. At this time, the leather is water-permeable. Water penetration (bending times) and dynamic water absorption (mass fraction) determine the waterproof performance of leather samples. The number of bending times for leather samples that are qualified for water resistance is> 15000 times without water penetration. Bally penetration testing method: Bally penetration testing method is the main testing method in Europe. This method is mainly used to test the dynamic waterproof performance of leather watchbands. The testing equipment is a water permeability tester (Switzerland BALLY). During the test, the leather sample is fixed in a water bath, its length is stretched, the time of water penetration is recorded, and the dynamic water penetration time is recorded (Minutes), calculate the water absorption rate (%) when permeable and the water absorption rate (%) for the specified zigzag time. The test method was developed by the Physical Inspection Committee of the International Federation of Leather Technologists and Chemists Association. Waterproof-drop test method: This method is ISO 23232:2009 and the American National Standard AATCC193-2009 of the American Association of Chemists and Dyeers to determine the waterproofness of textile fibers. According to the surface tension of the test reagent solution (different volume fraction of isopropanol aqueous solution), it is divided into 0-10 grades. Drop the test reagent solution droplets with different surface tension on the surface of the leather sample (spacing 5mm). If the test solution of this grade cannot wet the surface of the leather sample (by observing the surface morphology of the test droplet and its contact angle), it indicates that the surface tension of the leather is less than the surface tension of the test solution. Pass the test of this grade; replace the higher level The test solution is tested until the leather surface is wetted (according to the surface morphology of the droplet and its contact angle), then the final grade passed is selected as the waterproof grade of the fiber. Spray method: This method is ISO 4920:2012 and the AATCC22-2014 American National Standard of the American Association of Chemists and Dyeers. The test method for determining the waterproofness of textile fibers: spray 250ml of distilled water from a nozzle fixed at a certain height on On the surface of the fiber sample, the nozzle of the nozzle and the surface of the sample are at a 45° angle, and the water mark pattern left after the fiber sample is sprayed is compared with the legend of the standard sample card, and the waterproof level of the fiber sample can be measured. The sink-float method: The sink-float method uses the relationship between the critical surface tension and the waterproof performance to evaluate the waterproofness level of the leather by the size of the critical surface tension. The method passes the test solution (water-butanol solution) and the side length is 1～ Multiple surfaces of 2mm leather particles are connected to characterize the water repellency of the leather surface, which is widely used in the Japanese textile industry. Oil resistance-drop test method: This method is ISO 14119:2010 and the American National Standard AATCC118-2013 of the American Association of Chemists and Dyeers to determine the oil resistance of textile fibers. Leather can be used as a reference. Because different types of pure oils and fats analytical reagents have different surface tensions, they are divided into 1 to 8 grades according to the different surface tensions. Different grades of oils and fats analytical pure reagents are dropped on the surface of leather samples with a distance of 5mm. Class analytical reagents cannot wet the surface of the leather sample (according to the surface morphology and contact angle of the droplets), which means that the surface tension of the leather is less than the surface tension of the test reagent, and it passes this level test; then use a higher-level reagent In the test, until the surface of the fiber is wet (according to the surface morphology of the droplet and its contact angle), the final grade passed is selected as the oil resistance grade of the fiber.
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