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Summary of the types of testing commonly done in the plastics industry

by:GESTER Instruments     2021-05-13
Plastic materials are a type of material commonly used in industrial production, and they are also raw materials for daily daily necessities. Because plastics have many characteristics, such as flammability, low density, and strong plasticity, they are widely used, so we need to focus on this type of material. There will be a lot of tests. This article summarizes the types of tests that are often done in the plastics industry. Combustion test Combustion performance: refers to all the physical and chemical changes that occur when the material is burnt and meets fire. This performance includes the ignitability and flame propagation of the material surface, heat generation, smoke, carbonization, weight loss, and the production of toxic products Wait to measure. Test method: Mainly aerobic index combustion performance test, horizontal combustion performance test, vertical combustion performance test, glow-wire flammability index test. The flame retardant properties of the material directly affect the use of the material. Test principle: Fix one end of the rectangular strip spline on the horizontal or vertical fixture, and expose the other end to the specified test flame. By measuring the linear burning rate, the horizontal burning behavior of the sample is evaluated; by measuring the remaining fireworks and residual The flame time, combustion range, and particle drop are used to evaluate the combustion performance of the plastic. Significance of the test: Under the specified conditions, the combustion properties of different materials are of great significance to the use range of the material, the manufacturing process and the change characteristics of the combustion. Heat deflection temperature (Heat deflection temperature): A certain load is applied to a polymer material or polymer, and the temperature rises at a certain speed. When it reaches the specified deformation, the corresponding temperature. Test principle: The plastic sample is placed on a support with a span of 100mm, placed in a suitable liquid heat transfer medium, and a specific static bending load is applied to it at the midpoint of the two supports. When the bending deformation of the sample reaches the specified value under the condition of constant heating. Test purpose: For high polymer in glassy or crystalline state, as the temperature increases, the energy of atomic and molecular motion increases, and the ability of the material to deform due to its directional movement under the action of external force increases, that is, the ability of the material to resist external force-- The modulus decreases as the temperature increases, and as the temperature increases, the deformation of the plastic under a fixed load increases. Influencing factors: 1) Test instrument (reading error, sample placement position) 2) Method and size of sample preparation 3) Ash content of heat transfer medium What is ash content? Ash: When burned at a high temperature, the polymer undergoes a series of physical and chemical changes, and finally the organic components evaporate and escape, while the inorganic components (mainly inorganic salts and oxides) remain. These residues are called ash. In general modified products, the ash content is some inorganic minerals such as silica, calcium carbonate, talc, glass fiber, and titanium dioxide. Test method: calcining method (burning organic matter and treating its residue at high temperature until constant weight), burning in a horse boiling furnace at 600°C for 10 minutes, and weighing the residue. The ash content is expressed in mass percentage: (M1-M0)×100/MM represents the weight of the style, the weight of M1 ash and the cup, and the weight of the M0 cup. Purpose: To determine the content of inorganic substances in plastics as a basis for judging the authenticity of materials and A basis for judging the performance of materials, such as: in the plastic with glass fiber, the rigidity of the plastic material increases, and the heat resistance increases, but the toughness decreases. On the contrary, the toughness increases and the rigid heat resistance decreases. What is the meaning of moisture test? principle? Moisture: refers to the water contained inside the object. Test principle: Mainly divided into: infrared rapid moisture determination and halogen rapid moisture determination. Infrared moisture test principle: infrared heating method uses the thermal effect and strong penetrating ability of infrared heating to heat the object. The moisture of the tested object quickly evaporates and loses weight. Data of the initial mass of the object and the mass of the object after evaporating moisture, to obtain the water content of the measured object at a certain temperature.
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