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Introduction to the aging performance test and standard of geotextile

by:GESTER Instruments     2021-05-14
Geotextile is a kind of textile material that is developing rapidly in the field of geosynthetics. It is widely used in various engineering projects such as highways, railways, water conservancy, and construction. The aging performance of geotextiles directly affects the reliability and safety of the project. Research on the aging phenomenon and causes of geotextiles, establish and standardize aging standard test methods, and further improve the aging performance of geotextiles, which has a high economic and strategy for engineering applications. significance.   At present, the production and application of geotextiles are developing rapidly, and there are many studies on geotextiles, but there are relatively few studies on the aging performance of geotextiles. As a kind of engineering material, geotextile's aging performance index directly affects the life, safety and reliability of the project. Therefore, the research on the aging performance of geotextile has high economic and strategic significance. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) defines geotextiles as: all textiles that are used together with foundations, soil, rocks, soil or any other civil construction materials and used as part of man-made engineering or systems [1]. Geotextile is used together with foundation, soil, rock, soil or other building materials, and the geotextile is used to strengthen, protect, drain, filter, isolate, and prevent seepage of the soil [2]. Geotextiles are currently known as the 'Four Major Building Materials' together with cement, steel, and wood [3].   Geotextiles can be divided into woven geotextiles, knitted geotextiles and non-woven geotextiles according to different processing methods [4]. At present, woven geotextiles are mostly used in filament woven fabrics and flat silk woven fabrics. The material is mainly polypropylene. The warp-knitted composite geotextile is made of glass fiber (or other synthetic fibers) as a reinforcing material, which is compounded with staple fiber needle-punched non-woven geotextile. Non-woven geotextiles mainly include short fiber needle-punched geotextile and filament spun clay cloth. The selected synthetic fiber raw materials are mainly polyester, polypropylene, nylon, etc., of which polyester and polypropylene are mainly used. Whether knitted geotextiles, woven geotextiles or non-woven geotextiles are processed, stored and used, they are susceptible to the combined effects of internal and external factors, and their performance gradually deteriorates, resulting in the loss of use value. For aging. This is a common problem of geotextiles. Its essence is the breaking of molecular chains in the polymer structure and the change of chemical structure. On the macro level, it is manifested as a decrease in the strength of the geotextile and damage to the macro structure. It is an irreversible change [6-7 ].     1. The cause of aging phenomenon    There are many manifestations of geotextile aging: macroscopic appearance is discoloration, embrittlement, loss of luster, structure change, mechanical properties, etc.; microscopic appearance is macromolecular structure change, large molecular weight decrease, etc. Among them, the greatest impact on engineering applications is the decrease in mechanical properties and the change in material structure.   There are two reasons for aging, internal and external. Internal factors refer to the properties of the material itself, mainly including: the structural state of monomers, internal properties of polymer systems, additives, etc.; external factors refer to external environmental factors, including sunlight, oxygen, heat, moisture, pH, stress, and industrial gases , Sea water, salt spray, mold, bacteria, etc. There are many reasons that affect aging, and usually various factors work together, but sunlight, water, oxygen, and heat are the most important influencing factors. This article mainly focuses on these factors [8].    Second, aging test   Aging test is a method to study the aging law of geotextiles in a certain environment and to evaluate the aging performance of geotextiles. Through the aging test, the strength, elongation, elastic modulus and microporous structure of the geotextile are tested over time. The aging test mainly includes three kinds of artificial accelerated aging test, natural environment aging test and actual application aging test [9].  1) Artificial accelerated aging test   Place the sample in an aging box, and set the parameters of the aging box, such as temperature and humidity, UV intensity, rain, condensation, etc., according to the actual use of the sample or related aging standards. After a certain period of accelerated aging, compare the aging sample with the original sample to estimate the aging resistance of the sample. The characteristics of accelerated aging using the instrument are stable accelerated aging conditions, strong comparability, short test period, and good reproducibility.   Artificial accelerated aging test mainly includes: artificial accelerated ultraviolet aging test, artificial accelerated thermal aging test, artificial accelerated oxygen aging test, artificial accelerated damp heat aging test, etc.  2) Natural environment aging test    The sample is exposed to the natural environment to detect the aging of the geotextile performance over time. The advantage of the natural environment aging test is that the real natural environment is used for the test, and the results are true and reliable. The disadvantage is that it is time-consuming and laborious, usually at least one year, or even several years, and it is impossible to quickly evaluate the aging performance of new materials and new products. 
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