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Introduction to the basic properties of fabrics

by:GESTER Instruments     2021-04-12
1. Strength performance (1) The tensile strength and elongation at break of the fabric: The fabric will break when it is subjected to a large tensile force during the wearing process. The tensile force when the fabric breaks under stress is called the breaking strength; the percentage of the ratio of the deformation to the original length during the tensile break is called the elongation at break. The tensile fracture performance of the fabric is determined by factors such as the nature of the fiber, the structure of the yarn, the texture of the fabric, and the processing after dyeing and finishing. (2) The tearing strength of the fabric: during the wearing of the garment, the yarn on the fabric will be caught by foreign objects and break, or the fabric will be torn in half after being clamped and pulled. This damage to the fabric The phenomenon is called tearing or tearing. A few days ago, in the test of resin-finished cotton fabrics and other chemical fiber fabrics, my country has an item for evaluating the tearing strength of fabrics. The influencing factors of fabric tearing strength are different from the tensile performance. The tearing performance is also related to the resistance of the yarn in the fabric. Therefore, the tear strength of the plain weave fabric is the smallest, and the square weave fabric is the largest. The twill weave is somewhere in between. The tearing performance of the fabric can reflect to a certain extent the fabric's style characteristics such as flexibility and compaction. (3) Bursting strength of the fabric: The fabric is partially damaged under the load perpendicular to the plane of the fabric, which is called top cracking or bursting. Bursting is related to the phenomenon of elbow arching and knee arching when the clothing fabric is worn, and it is also similar to the force of gloves and socks. The burst test can provide the characteristic information of the multi-directional strength and elongation of the fabric, and is especially suitable for knitted fabrics, three-directional fabrics, non-woven fabrics and parachute fabrics. The national standard stipulates that the capping test shall be carried out with a marble or pneumatic capping tester. The test indicators are burst strength and burst elongation. 2. Wear resistance During wearing and use, the fabric will be damaged by various frictions. The wear resistance of the fabric is called wear resistance. Abrasion is one of the main reasons for the damage of clothing fabrics. The influencing factors are still the properties of the fiber, the structure of the yarn, the texture of the fabric and the processing after dyeing and finishing. 3. Heat resistance. In the process of processing and use, fabrics often encounter various heat effects, such as dyeing, heat setting, washing, ironing, drying, etc. After the fabric is heated, its strength will generally decrease. The degree of decline varies with temperature, time, and fiber type. The ability of fabrics to maintain their physical and mechanical properties at high temperatures is called heat resistance. As the temperature rises, the fabric gradually shows changes in physical and chemical properties, until natural fibers and regenerated fibers are decomposed, carbonized, or synthetic fibers are softened and melted at high temperatures. 4. Lightfastness During use and storage, the clothing fabric will be oxidized due to the combined effects of sunlight and atmosphere, which will gradually deteriorate the performance and reduce the strength, which will result in the loss of use value. This phenomenon is called 'aging' of clothing fabrics. The performance of clothing fabrics to resist the effects of weather is called weather resistance, and the performance of resisting the effects of light and sunlight is called light resistance. Light resistance is for clothing that is often used in the open air. Very important. 5. Chemical resistance performance. The ability of fabrics to resist various chemicals is called the chemical resistance of fabrics. Washing, dirt removal, dyeing, bleaching and other processes have an important impact on this performance, because In these processes, taking fabrics will encounter the effects of acids, alkalis, oxidants, bleaches and other chemicals in varying degrees. The fabrics treated with drugs will also have a certain impact on human health.
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