Leather is a strong and durable material made of animal skins through a series of physical and chemical processing. It has good thermal stability, heat resistance and cold resistance, breathability and moisture desorption, and good The coloring ability is well received by people. Leather has an irreplaceable position in people's daily life, and the clothing and daily necessities made from it have been used by people for a long time. With the improvement of science and technology, tannery technology has been continuously developed, and new materials have been successfully developed one after another. With the progress of society and economic development, people's living standards are getting higher and higher, making the demand for leather products more and more prosperous. In the context of economic globalization, the laws and regulations on leather and luggage in various countries are constantly being introduced and new, and consumers are paying more and more attention to the quality and safety of leather. In order to meet consumers' increasing requirements for high-quality leather and improve the performance indicators of leather products, it is necessary to have a comprehensive understanding of its common physical properties and test
methods in order to better complete the test, provide accurate data, and guide production practices. 1 Classification of leather The classification of leather is quite complicated. According to the tanning method, it can include chrome tanned leather, vegetable tanned leather, oil tanned leather, aldehyde tanned leather and combined tanned leather. According to the level, there are first-layer leather and second-layer leather. The first-layer leather includes full-grain leather and trimmed leather; the second-layer leather includes pig second-layer leather and cattle second-layer leather. In addition to the above classification methods, as there are many types of leather materials, we are generally more accustomed to classifying them according to their types. Mainly divided into two kinds of natural leather and substitute leather. Natural leather is what we call 'leatherSubstitute leather is what we call 'fake leatherBecause synthetic leather or other leather-like products are actually artificially synthesized products from basic chemical raw materials. 1.1 Natural leather 1.1.1 Cowhide (leather) cowhide mainly includes yellow cowhide and buffalo cowhide. The pores of yellow cowhide are small and shallow, with circular distribution, uniform and tight. The pores are straight and extend to the inside. The hand feels full, smooth and shiny, soft, fine lines, firm and elastic. It can be used in six layers. Buffalo has thin hair, thick and deep roots, thick skin, rough leather surface and poor texture. Generally used in shoe soles, leather shoes, belts, jackets, cowhide ropes, cowhide summer mats, etc. After cowhide processing, the cow leather has a fine surface, high strength, good air permeability and good water vapor permeability of natural leather. It has large openings, fine pores, smooth mastoids, small differences in parts, smooth grain, and orderly arrangement of pores. It is the preferred raw material for leather products. It is often used to make daily necessities such as leather bags, leather shoes, and leather clothes. leather shoes. 1.1.2 Sheepskin (leather) Sheepskin mainly includes goatskin and sheepskin. Goatskin leather has a semicircular arc, with 2-4 needle pores arranged on the arc, surrounded by a large number of fine vellus pores, the pores are arranged like fish scales, and the hand feels extensible. Sheep leather has a smooth and smooth surface, thin skin, small pores, oblate, composed of several pores in a group of long rows, uniform color, plump, soft, and extensible leather body, clean leather, no greasy feeling , But the intensity is lower. Sheepskin processed sheep leather is soft, light and thin. It is an ideal fabric for leather clothing and is often used as high-end clothing. However, it has low strength and is easy to rot. It can only be used for leather garments and gloves, but not shoe uppers and handbags. 1.1.3 Pigskin (leather) The surface leather of pigskin is rough, with obvious pores, arranged in a triangle, poor elasticity, poor aesthetics, but it is durable and strong. The processed pig leather has good air permeability and water vapor permeability, rough grain, tight fiber, plump, and poor elasticity. It can be used in the production of various leather products. It has greater strength and abrasion resistance. The strength is similar to that of cow leather, but stronger than sheep leather, so the product is durable. However, its aesthetics is poor, and its toughness is poor. Generally, it can only be used to make linings, or part of the decorative effect, and it is not easy to fade. 1.2 Alternative leather 1.2.1 Artificial leather Artificial leather is also called imitation leather or rubber, which is the general term for artificial materials such as PVC and PU. It is made on a woven fabric base or a non-woven fabric base by foaming or laminating various formulas such as PVC and PU. It can be made according to different strength, abrasion resistance, cold resistance, color, gloss, and pattern. Patterns and other requirements are processed and made, with the characteristics of a wide variety of patterns, good waterproof performance, neat edges, high utilization rate and relatively low price compared to real leather. Artificial leather is a very popular type of material, which is commonly used to make various leather products, or to replace some of the genuine leather materials. Its increasingly advanced production technology is being widely used in the processing and production of two-layer leather. Nowadays, artificial leather with characteristics that resemble real leather has been produced. Its surface technology and the fibrous structure of its base material almost achieve the effect of real leather, and its price is comparable to that of domestic top layer leather. 1.2.2 Synthetic leather is made of non-woven fabric as the base and impregnated with a new type of resin material. It has good moisture absorption and air permeability. The coating is a new material polyurethane, which has good hand feeling, abrasion resistance, bending resistance and strength better than artificial leather. 1.2.3 Recycled leather is made by crushing leather scraps and waste materials into fibers, adding plant fiber binders and various compounding agents, and pressing them into moldings. They are mostly used in travel shoes and belts.
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