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Thoughts on the Test Standards for Filter Efficiency of Protective Masks

by:GESTER Instruments     2021-03-28
With the rapid development of metallurgy, electric power, energy, chemistry, steel, textile printing and dyeing and other industries, a large number of toxic and harmful substances are discharged, plus a large amount of exhaust gas emitted into the atmosphere during the operation of various vehicles, resulting in Large-scale pollution of the air environment. Our country has encountered extremely serious haze infestations in recent years. The frequency of its occurrence, the extent of its spread, and the severity of its pollution have never been seen before. In this context, my country's protective masks, especially PM2. 5. Protective masks have received extensive attention from the general public, and their market is in a period of rapid growth. However, due to the incomplete relevant standards, the quality of these products is uneven, and the protective effects of some products are not satisfactory, and may even harm the health of consumers. At present, the domestic standards related to protective masks mainly include GB 2626-2006 'Respiratory Protective Equipment Self-priming Filtered Particle Respirator' [1], GB 1903-2010 'Technical Requirements for Medical Protective MasksMasks5 Protective Masks'[2] and GB/T 32610-2016 'Technical Specifications for Daily Protective Masks' and so on. Among them, some of the test standards are mainly for medical masks and other products, and the commercially available civilian protective masks are mainly tested in accordance with GB 2626-2006 'Respiratory Protective Equipment Self-priming Filter Type Anti-Particulate Respirator'. Association standard TAJ 1001-2015 'PM2. 5 'Protective Masks' and the national recommended standard GB/T 32610-2016 'Technical Specifications for Daily Protective Masks' are issued for the effective protection and evaluation of the performance of civilian protective masks. 1 Classification and use of masks 1.1. Ordinary paper masks. These masks are disposable items and can only block larger particles. They have limited ability to isolate germs and viruses. They can be used in electronics manufacturing, dust-free workshops, food processing, and schools. Use in other occasions. 1.2 Dust-proof respirator This type of respirator can only filter particles with a larger particle size, and is more suitable for cleaning and other related tasks. 1.3 Surgical masks Surgical masks are mainly composed of 3 layers of non-woven fabrics, which can block more than 90% of the particle size. The particles of 000 μm need to be replaced in time every day. They are mainly suitable for people with respiratory diseases or use in unventilated places such as hospitals and movie theaters. 1. 4 Activated carbon masks This kind of masks are often used to absorb toxic and harmful chemicals or dust. They usually do not have a sterilization function and are mainly suitable for use when spraying paint or spraying pesticides. 1. 5 N95 masks This type of mask meets the requirements of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) N95, and the diameter of particles that can be blocked can be as small as 0. 300 μm. This type of mask usually has high respiratory resistance and can be worn for a short time when the smog is severe. 2 Test conditions for filtration efficiency of relevant domestic and foreign standards The current foreign test standards for protective masks mainly include the United States NIOSH 42 CFR-84 'Respiratory Protection Device' [3], EU BS EN149: 2001 'Requirements for Filtering Half Masks for Particle Protection in Respiratory Protection Devices' , Testing and Labeling' [4] and Australian AS/NS 1716: 2003 'Respiratory Protective Equipment' [5] etc. In addition, Japan issued Decree No. 0207006 in 2005, which also stipulated the test conditions for dust masks. Table 1 lists the mask classification and filtration efficiency test conditions in the United States and the European Union. It can be seen from Table 1 that the United States divides the filter elements of the protective device into three categories for the types of protection objects, namely N, R and P series. Among them, the N series are suitable for protection of non-oily particles, and the two series of R and P can be used for protection of oily or non-oily particles. The European Union does not classify filter elements. When considering the filtration efficiency of filter elements, the United States and the European Union are rated according to different pretreatment conditions and test conditions. Similar to the American standard, the Japanese standard also classifies filter elements according to filtering non-oily particles (RS series) and filtering oily and non-oily particles (RL series). The filtration efficiency of RS1 / RL1 is ≥80. 00%, the filtration efficiency of RS2 / RL2 is ≥95. 00%, the filtration efficiency of RS3/RL3 is ≥99. 90%. The Australian standard directly divides the filter element into 3 grades: P1, P2 and P3. The filter efficiency of P1 is ≥80. 00%, the filtration efficiency of P2 is ≥94. 00%, the filtration efficiency of P3≥99. 95%. The country has also issued a series of standards for protective masks, and with the development of mask materials and changes in social needs, relevant standards are constantly updated and improved. At present, the filtration efficiency test of protective masks mainly refers to GB 2626-2006 'Respiratory Protective Equipment Self-priming Filtering Anti-Particulate Respirator'. In terms of particle detection, technical requirements and test methods, this standard has a greater degree of improvement than its alternative standard, and the classification of test objects is more specific and effective. However, due to the direct contact between protective masks and human mouth and nose, it is necessary to consider microorganisms, pH value, decomposable carcinogenic aromatic amine dyes and other items when testing civil protective masks to more effectively ensure the protection of wearing protection that meets the requirements of this standard. The health of ordinary people with masks. Based on this, the industry association and the country respectively issued TAJ 1001-2015 'PM2. 5 Protective masks' and GB/T32610-2016 'Technical Specifications for Daily Protective Masks' 2 standards.
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