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Fabric pilling test method and instrument

by:GESTER Instruments     2021-04-08
As a result of research on anti-pilling properties, a variety of test methods have emerged. It is usually required that the hair balls produced by the test should be close to the actual conditions of use. In addition, since the laboratory test should be made before the actual wearing test, the laboratory test must be quickly pilled. This makes the fabric bear stronger stress than it is actually worn. In principle, the fabric to be tested is placed on a gentle friction object, and frictional movement in various directions with relatively small pressure and tension. The following points should be considered for this kind of test: (1) The sample area should be as large as possible to eliminate local differences in the surface characteristics of the fabric and obtain a full picture of the pilling of the fabric. (2) The sample should be tested as far as possible without tension, or under the smallest tension that can be controlled, because strong tension will cause the fibers to merge strongly. And thus get the illusion of lower pilling tendency. (3) The friction pressure of the friction object on the sample should be as small as possible. In order to achieve a soft friction effect similar to actual use. (4) The friction material should be wear-resistant and the surface roughness should be uniform, so that the friction effect can be kept constant during the test and the test can be repeated. (5) The relative movement between the sample and the friction object is generally a curve instead of a linear movement, so that the fiber of the sample can be easily entangled. (6) The speed of the relative movement should be larger, so that the pilling test can be completed quickly. The various pilling test methods can be summarized into two categories: 1. Fixing of the sample. In the same form as the wear test, the sample is actively moved. This type of method is divided into two types: one type uses a vigorous friction object to make the specimen pre-fuzz, and then uses a soft friction body for friction. Figure (a) is the principle diagram of this type of tester, and the pressure can be self-xia or aggravated. This method is commonly used in filament knitted fabrics, wool fabrics, chemical fiber pure spinning, blended knitted fabrics and woven fabrics. The other is to test with only soft friction bodies. Figure (b) is the principle diagram of this kind of tester. The sample is rolled on a rubber tube as shown in the figure, and it is subjected to irregular movement and friction in a rotating box lined with cork. The effect of this method is close to the practical wearing effect of tightly organized fabrics. 2. The method of placing the sample in the box and turning freely. Figure 1 shows its principle diagram in a cylinder lined with rubber (cork). The three samples are stirred at the same time by the rotating blade, giving irregular buckling, rubbing and friction effects. This form has a high correlation with practicality. Figure 2 shows a commonly used fabric pilling instrument. It separates the fuzzing and pilling of the fabric. First, use a nylon brush to rub the fabric sample a certain number of times to make the surface of the fabric hairy, and then rub the sample and the abrasive fabric for pilling. The relative movement trajectory of the sample and the abrasive is circular. The sample is ground 60 times per minute. The instrument is equipped with an electromagnetic counter. When the predetermined number of frictions is reached, the test will automatically stop. The pilling instrument is suitable for ten chemical fiber filament fabrics and chemical fiber staple fabrics. When only fabrics are used as abrasives, it can be used for wool fabrics and other fabrics that are easy to pilling. The samples used in the instrument need to be humidified for more than 24 hours in the standard atmosphere before testing. The sample should be 1/10 of the edge of the cloth. Randomly cut 3 pieces (5 pieces of wool fabric samples) within the width. The self-diameter of the sample is 112.8mm. There should be no defects that affect the test result. The pressure of the sample on the abrasive varies with different types of fabrics. The domestic standards stipulate; the pressure of chemical fiber filament fabric and chemical fiber staple fabric is 588cN; the combed wool fabric is 784cN; the carded wool fabric is 490cN, and the friction times of various fabrics The requirements are: polyester low-elastic filament knitted fabrics, first on the nylon brush, and then on the abrasive fabric, each for 150 revolutions; polyester low-elastic filament and chemical fiber staple fabrics are first on the nylon brush, and then on the abrasive fabric. 50 revolutions for the combed wool fabric; 60 revolutions for the abrasive fabric for the combed wool fabric; 50 revolutions for the carded wool fabric. Then put the sample in the grading box and compare it with the standard sample to determine the pilling grade of the fabric. The characteristic of the Martindale type abrasion tester is that the sample fabric is mounted on the sample chuck for friction with the same fabric mounted on the grinding table. The sample rotates freely around the axis, the relative movement of the sample chuck and the grinding table is a Li Sharu pattern, and the relative movement speed is 45~48r/min. For various fabrics, the pressure on the abrasive is 196cN( 200gf) and other dry grinding head's own weight. This instrument is suitable for woolen fabrics and other fabrics that are easy to pilling, and is more suitable for woven fabrics. But it is not suitable for fabrics with a thickness of more than 3mm, because such fabrics cannot be fitted into the sample holder.
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