1 The rise, decline, transformation and upgrading of the US textile and apparel industry are similar to those of other developed countries. The US textile industry
is also an important industrial industry that developed with the first industrial revolution. In 1790, the establishment of the first hydro-spinning mill in North American history marked the beginning of the industrialization era in the United States. From transplanting British textile industrialization technology at the beginning of development to becoming an important textile industrialized country in the world through transformation and innovation, it can be said that the textile industry, as the mother industry of the US industrialization process, has not only laid a solid foundation for the strong industrial production capacity of the United States. , Has also made important contributions to the scientific and technological progress of the United States and the growth of the national economy. On October 20, 1990, the then-U.S. President Bush Sr. stated at the conference celebrating the 200th anniversary of the U.S. textile industry: 'The U.S. textile industry has played an indelible role in the growth and competitiveness of the U.S. economy.' And many traditional manufacturing Just like the decline of the industry after the mid-industrialization period, the US textile industry experienced tremendous changes and adjustments from prosperity to recession in the 20th century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the United States used cotton resources as its advantage and was the first to realize the industrialization of chemical fiber production. It replaced Britain with cotton fabrics and chemical fiber fabrics as the world's textile manufacturing center at that time. Beginning in the mid-20th century, the production capacity of the US textile industry and the status of the textile industry in its domestic economy began to slowly decline. The proportion of textile industry output in GDP fell from 2.6% in 1839 to 2.2% in 1965. After that, the explosive growth of emerging industries such as computers and electronic products (Figure 1) accelerated the decline of the US textile industry. In the 12 years from 1950 to 1961, the number of employees in the US textile industry fell by 30.7%. In the mid-to-late 20th century, the recession caused by the impact of competition in the post-industrial countries was particularly obvious in the United States and other industrial-leading countries. With the rise of domestic labor costs in the United States, strong fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar, and the textile industry of emerging economies with demographic dividends With the rise of the US textile industry, the production capacity and the number of employees in the US textile industry have declined rapidly. From 1987 to 2009, the total output of the US textile industry dropped from US$67.6 billion to US$45.8 billion, a drop of nearly one-third; from 1998 to 2010, the number of employees in the US textile industry fell by 64%. In particular, the textile and apparel quota system withdrew from the historical stage in 2005, faced with the pressure of a sharp increase in the import volume of apparel products from low-cost countries, and the downstream apparel manufacturing industry in the US textile industry was seriously shrinking. However, with the disappearance of the comparative advantage of the manufacturing industry, the US textile industry has not withdrawn from its national industrial system in the process of gradually withdrawing from the world manufacturing center. In order to continuously improve economic benefits, industrial benefits and production efficiency have been significantly improved (Figure 2). Throughout the transformation and upgrading process of the US textile industry from the middle and late 20th century to the beginning of this century, it has mainly experienced the adjustment and transformation of the following characteristics. The first is industrial transfer. The domestic textile and apparel industry is transferred from the north and mid-Atlantic regions to the south and west, and the processing or assembly links are transferred abroad to reduce costs and strengthen the ability to adapt to the market. The second is to eliminate outdated production capacity through mergers and acquisitions and greatly increase market concentration. At the same time, a group of well-performing companies have automated upgrades of production equipment, management innovation (information technology and management information systems), vertical integration of the industrial chain, and expansion of brand portfolios. Strategies to greatly improve operational efficiency and supply chain integration capabilities, forming a group of strong textile multinational groups. The third is to formulate the famous AMTEX textile technology development plan. Through technological innovation and product quality improvement, especially the research and development of new fibers and new technologies, a group of enterprises and technology capitals with unique competitive advantages in sub-specialized fields have been formed. Fourth, through various regional (China-US, Africa u0026 Middle East and Asia) free trade agreements, value chain activities are positioned in countries with comparative advantages in view of the difference in factor costs of different countries, thereby shrinking manufacturing links and focusing their value chain on products The development, marketing, and distribution links control key 'value chain' nodes such as product design, quality standards, product delivery, inventory, and price, and lead textile and apparel manufacturers in developing countries to participate in the division of labor in the global value chain through a global production network. Mode and distribution of benefits.
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