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The wisdom of the ancients The earliest instrument in China

by:GESTER Instruments     2021-05-21
We usually say 'air humidity' generally refers to 'relative humidity  Of course, the ancients did not know the percentage of relative humidity, but there is still a general concept of air dryness and wetness: the lower the humidity, the drier the air, and the higher the humidity, the more humid the air. As early as in the Western Jin Dynasty, Fu Xuan had a poem 'Yan and Drought Poems'. The poem 'Dust rises in the river, and no grass grows in the fields.' It describes the dryness of the air and the severity of the drought. In the Song Dynasty Mei Yaochen's 'Plum Rain' poem, there is 'wet fungus grows withered fences, moisturizes the air and plain clothes.' The 'moisturizes air' is moisture and moisture. The ancients were even able to predict the weather according to the humidity of the air. In the Book of Xiangyu by Huang Zi of the Tang Dynasty, there were 'the natural water on the wall, the sky will rain heavily' and 'the stone on the water will run out of liquid and keep it raining for a few days. 'And other records.   The air humidity is invisible to the naked eye. How to roughly estimate the size of the air humidity actually involves the measurement of the air humidity.   my country is the first country to invent moisture measuring instruments. Eastern Han Dynasty Wang Chong once said in 'Lun Heng·Changes' that if the strings become loose, it will rain. The looseness of the strings is caused by the wet weather and the elongation of the strings, which indicates that the air humidity is relatively high. It can be seen that the ancient stringed piano can also be used as a primitive air humidity measuring instrument. The 'hair' in modern hair hygrometers is actually the miniaturization and precision of ancient strings. At the end of the Yuan Dynasty and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, Lou Yuanli also said in the book Tianjia Five Elements that if the dry and clean strings of good quality suddenly become loose and wide, it is because the piano bed is wet; this phenomenon indicates that the general Rainy. He also said that if the pitch produced by the strings of the piano is not well-tuned, it also indicates rainy weather. In fact, this is also because the loose and wide strings have reduced pitch sensitivity, which is scientifically reasonable.  In the 'Historical Records: Official Book of HeavenThis is actually the original 'hygrometer'. The principle is: when the weather is dry, the charcoal is light, and the balance tends to soil; when the weather is wet, the charcoal is heavy, and the balance tends to charcoal. That is, as the ancients said, 'dryness results in light charcoal, and dampness results in heavy charcoal.' 'Huainanzi·Thai Training' says: 'The husband is so wet, it is invisible, but the charcoal is heavy.' Translated into modern Chinese, it means: when the moisture comes, people can't see it; but the charcoal is already It appeared heavy. This further clarifies that this moisture measuring instrument can measure invisible water vapor. Obviously, such a moisture measuring instrument is a step further than the 'string wetness measurement' in terms of measuring method and accuracy.   During the Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty, Nan Huairen, a Western missionary to China, used the tendons of a deer to make a string hygrometer to test the humidity in the air. The principle is also 'deer tendons to absorb moisture  The inventor of the humidity measuring instrument closest to the modern hygrometer was Huang Luzhuang, the inventor of the Qing Dynasty. Huang Luzhuang, born in 1656, invented or improved many optical instruments (such as searchlights, binoculars, microscopes), and invented many 'testers'. Among them, the cold and heat tester is the prototype of the modern 'thermometer'; The hygrometer is the prototype of the modern 'hygrometer'. It uses the principle of moisture absorption and expansion of the string to measure the humidity in the air. It is more than a hundred years earlier than the hair hygrometer invented by the Swiss Soschel.
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