Abrasion is manifested in the morphological changes of the fabric, which are mainly damage, loss of quality, discoloration of appearance, and pilling. There are many methods for testing the wear resistance of textile products, such as flat grinding method, curved grinding method, hemming grinding method and compound grinding method. Martindale method is a kind of flat grinding method, which is widely used in the abrasion resistance testing of clothing, home textiles, decorative fabrics, and furniture fabrics. The test sample is rubbed with a standard abrasive cloth under the specified pressure. After a predetermined number of rotations, the tested sample is compared with the reference sample to rate its wear resistance. 1. Evaluation of the wear resistance of fabrics There are usually the following methods for the evaluation of the wear resistance of fabrics: 1.1 Observe the changes in appearance properties. Under the same test conditions, after a specified number of wear, observe the surface gloss Changes in appearance effects such as fluffing and pilling are usually compared with standard samples to assess their grades. It is also possible to use the number of frictions required for a certain number of sand thread breaks on the surface of the sample after wear, or a certain size of holes on the surface of the sample, as the basis for evaluation. 1.2 Measuring the changes in physical properties After the sample has been worn for a specified number of times, the changes in physical and mechanical properties such as its weight, thickness, and breaking strength are measured to compare the degree of wear resistance of the fabric. 2. The current standards of fabric abrasion resistance due to the different national and regional standard series, the test standards applicable to the Martindale tester
are the Chinese standards. The specific current standards are as follows: Chinese National Standard GB/T 19089-2012 Determination of the abrasion resistance of rubber or plastic coated fabrics Martindale method GB/T 19089-2012 Determination of the abrasion resistance of rubber or plastic coated fabrics Martindale Method GB/T 21196.1-2007 Part 1: Martindale Abrasion Tester GB/T 4802.2-2008 Determination of Pilling Performance of Textile Fabrics Part 2: Modified Martindale Method GB/T 21196.2-2007: Textile Martin Determination of abrasion resistance of fabrics by the Dyer method Part 2: Determination of sample damage GB/T 21196.3-2007 Textiles Determination of the abrasion resistance of fabrics by the Martindale method Part 3: Determination of mass loss GB/T 21196.4-2007 Textiles Martindale method for the determination of abrasion resistance of fabrics. Part 4: Appearance change evaluation FZ/T 01123-2014 textile abrasion resistance test. Hemming grinding method GB/T 21196.2-2007 textile Martindale method for the determination of fabric abrasion resistance Part 2: Determination of sample damage Current GB/T 21196.3-2007 Textile Martindale Method Determination of abrasion resistance of fabrics Part 3: Determination of mass loss GB/T 3903.16-2008 Footwear uppers, linings and inner pads Test method Abrasion resistance GB/T 13775-1992 Test method for abrasion resistance of cotton, linen and spun silk woven fabric GB/T 25262-2010 Vulcanized rubber or thermoplastic rubber 3. Abrasion test guide The standards given above are several current international standards The Martindale method standard for fabric abrasion resistance testing issued by an influential standardization organization. Among them, the international standards adopt EU standards. China’s national standards are revised to adopt the International Organization for Standardization standard, and the testing method is basically the same as the International Organization for Standardization standard, except that the scope of application of the standard has increased the coated fabric, and for the detection of coated fabrics, the corresponding coating fabric damage regulations and friction have been added. Load parameters, standard abrasives and standard abrasive replacement requirements. In the actual situation, the corresponding test standards and methods can be selected according to the needs. 4. Methods to improve the wear resistance In order to improve the wear resistance of the fabric, we mainly discuss the methods to improve the wear resistance of the fabric from the three aspects of yarn fiber composition, fabric structure, and finishing. 1. The properties of the fiber The main properties that affect the wear resistance of the fiber are the physical properties of the fiber's stretching, bending and shearing. From the comparison of fiber types, the abrasion resistance is: nylon>polypropylene>vinylon>polyethylene>polyester>acrylic>polychloride>wool>silk>cotton>linen>rich fiber>copper ammonia fiber>viscose fiber>acetate fiber>Compared from the fiber structure of glass fiber, the abrasion resistance of the circular cross-section structure fiber is higher than the strength of the shaped fiber; the thinner the fiber, the worse the abrasion resistance. Therefore, in order to improve the wear resistance, it is necessary to choose a round cross-section fiber with good wear resistance as much as possible. 2. The type of yarn The wear resistance of yarn is closely related to the structure of the yarn. The spinning method is different, the fiber winding method in the yarn is different, and the cohesion force between the fibers is different, and the wear resistance is also different. Because the fibers of traditional ring-spun yarns are mostly in the form of spirals, when they are repeatedly rubbed, the spiral fibers gradually become axial fibers, and the yarns are easily twisted and disintegrated and quickly wear off, so the wear resistance is poor.
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