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The measurement of the pilling performance of fabrics by Martindale tester

by:GESTER Instruments     2021-03-22
1. Scope    1.1 This method is suitable for judging the ability of fabrics to resist pilling and other surface property changes. The instrument used is the Martindale tester, this method is suitable for all kinds of knitted fabrics and woven fabrics.  1.2 This method is not suitable for fabrics whose thickness exceeds 3mm (0.125in).  1.3 The samples can be washed or dry cleaned before testing.  2. Principle  2.1 Determine the pilling of the fabric and other related changes on its surface, such as using a test instrument to simulate the pilling that occurs during normal wear. Under slight pressure, the sample mounted on the sample holder and the fabric on the grinding table are rubbed against each other in a certain geometric pattern, and then the sample of the grinding table and the standard sample are compared and rated.  3. Equipment and standard materials   3.1 Martindale tester  3.2 Standard felt: gram weight 750±50g/m2 (22±1.5oz/yd2), thickness 3±0.3mm (0.12±0.01in).  3.3 Polyurethane foam, density 29-31kg/m3, thickness 3±0.01mm.  3.4 Grading box: cool white fluorescent lamp, bracket for placing test samples and standard grading sample photos.  3.5 Standard internal pilling detection cloth: According to the actual situation, save the fabric of known pilling level to check the performance of the instrument.  3.6 Sample photos for rating: A set of about 105mm wide, with the degree of pilling from 'very serious pilling' to 'no pilling  3.7 Sampler: Two kinds of diameter 38mm (1.5in) and 140mm (5.5in).  3.8 Washing equipment (if necessary)  3.9 Dry cleaning equipment (if necessary)  4. Sample preparation    4.1 Unless otherwise specified, the sample shall be washed or dry-cleaned before taking the sample.  4.2 Use two kinds of samplers to take 4 pieces of 140mm and 38mm samples from the samples to be tested. 4.3 The principles to be followed for sampling are: take samples immediately. If the samples are clothing, take samples at different locations; each sample does not contain the same yarn; do not take samples from wrinkled or woven locations; At a position that is more than 1/10 of the width of the entire fabric from the edge of the fabric.  4.4 The sample to be tested shall be kept for at least 4 hours under constant temperature and humidity conditions of 21±1℃ and 65±2%RH.   5. Test procedure    5.1 All test procedures must be completed under standard atmospheric conditions.  5.2 Place a piece of felt with a diameter of 140mm and a piece of specimen of 140mm on each grinding table in turn, flatten the specimen and felt with a heavy hammer (make sure there are no wrinkles, repeat the above process if it is not flat), and fix the ring.  5.3 Place the sample with a diameter of 38mm (1.5in) facing outward and the polyurethane foam in sequence on the sample holder.  5.4 Place the sample holder on the grinding table, insert the mandrel into the sample holder, that is, the test sample on the grinding table has a pressure of 3Kpa.  5.5 The counter needs to be adjusted to the zero position, preset to 100 revolutions, start the machine, and after 100 revolutions, the instrument stops automatically.  5.6 Place the ground sample in the grading box.  5.7 Compare the grading sample photos with the samples, and grade them by looking down close to 45°. When the surface effect after grinding is between two levels, it can be rated as half level, such as 3.5 or 2.5.  Note: 5-no pilling  4-slight pilling  3-medium pilling  2-severe pilling  1-very severe pilling   as a reference, usually at least 2 individuals are required to grade separately.  5.8 Calculate the average of the rating results.   6. Report   6.1 The test method used is ASTM D 4970, describing the sample and sampling method.  6.2 The grade and average value of each test sample.  6.3 If the sample has been washed, the washing conditions shall be reported.  6.4 Number of runs.  6.5 Rating box type, the rating sample card used.
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