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Protection and treatment measures of air particle pollutants

by:GESTER Instruments     2021-03-12
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the country has systematically discussed the construction of ecological civilization under the theme of 'Vigorously Promote the Construction of Ecological CivilizationThe particulate matter in the atmosphere not only reduces the visibility of the air, but also affects human health to varying degrees. The degree of impact is related to the particle size, chemical composition and concentration of the particulate matter [1]. Particulate pollutants are also called aerosol state pollutants. In air pollution, aerosol refers to small solid particles, liquid particles or their suspension system in a gas medium with negligible sedimentation speed. It can be divided into primary particulate matter and secondary particulate matter. [2]. Improving people's quality of life and protecting the healthy survival and development of human beings have become the basic principles of our air governance. Air particle pollutants harm (1) Harm to human health. Atmospheric fine particles enter the body from the respiratory system, destroy the immune mechanism of the respiratory system in the throat and bronchi, cause various respiratory diseases (cough, asthma) and increase the risk of lung infection. The latest research points out that the impact of atmospheric particulates on the reproductive system is not only manifested in the morphological abnormalities of the fetus at birth, but also leads to some minor functional defects, which affects its life. The lead compound particles generated after the combustion of leaded gasoline diffuse into the atmosphere and enter the human body with the respiratory tract, thereby affecting health [3]. (2) Harm to living things. The first is to poison or die organisms, the second is to slow down the normal development of organisms, and the last is to reduce the resistance of organisms to pests and diseases. In recent years, the importance of cadmium as an air pollutant is increasing. It is reported in the literature [4] that the cadmium discharged into the atmosphere in the United States has shown an obvious increasing trend year by year. Cadmium in the atmosphere mainly comes from industrial production, such as smelting and calcination of non-ferrous metals, and sintering of ore [5]. Because cadmium pollution not only affects the growth and development of crops [8, 9], yield and quality, but also harms humans and animals through the food chain, endangering human health and life safety [10]. Sources of Air Particulate Pollutants (1) Classification of source of particulate pollutants. The solid particulate matter produced during the fuel combustion process is usually called solid particulate matter, such as soot and fly ash. The particulate matter formed by the aggregation of lead halide discharged from automobile exhaust gas and the anthropogenic SO2 will be converted into sulfate particles under certain conditions. Secondary particles. Atmospheric particles can be divided into 3 categories according to their particle size: particles with an equivalent diameter less than or equal to 100μm are called TPS; particles smaller than 10μm are called PM10; particles smaller than 2.5μm are called PM2.5. (2) The problem of particle pollutant treatment. The Ministry of Environmental Protection issued the 'Announcement on the Implementation of Special Air Pollutant Emission Limits' on February 27, 2013. The areas that implement the special emission limits of air pollutants are those included in the 'Twelfth Five-Year Plan for Air Pollution Prevention and Control in Key Areas'. Key control area. Environmental protection departments at all levels in the key control area must strictly follow the special emission limit requirements of air pollutants, approve all new projects, and manage them in accordance with the 'three simultaneous' system to ensure that the special emission limit requirements are met [7]. However, there are still many problems in the treatment of air pollutants in our country. First, the causes of smog are complex, and it is difficult to eradicate smog with one method or means alone. Second, the coverage of smog is wide, and the regional coordination of smog control is poor. The experience and ability of smog control in all regions of our country are limited, so there are still big problems in the coordination of smog control. Third, the haze weather continues to increase, and the emission of air pollutants continues to increase. Fourth, the application of science and technology in the treatment of smog is insufficient, and the scientific and technological means of smog treatment still need to be strengthened and developed [11]. The proposal of the 'new normal' concept of particle pollutant protection and control of ecological civilization construction has scientifically solved the awkward situation between economic development and environmental protection, and has prompted us to gradually find the difference between the two through continuous exploration. balance point. In 2016, the 'Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Ecological Environmental Protection' issued by the State Council pointed out that the most stringent environmental protection system should be implemented to form a governance system that is governed by the government, enterprises, and the public [12]. (1) Establish a sound legal system, strict legislation, and fair law enforcement. Strengthen legislation and establish and improve a unified national air quality standard system. On a solid legal basis, set up reasonable pollution emission targets for each province and city, and allocate emission reduction targets to enterprises and factories for specific implementation. On the other hand, strictly supervise the specific implementation process of relevant laws and formulate specific penalties to force heavily polluting enterprises to gradually move towards sustainable development under the regulations of national laws and regulations. (2) Implement regional joint prevention and control, and establish key governance areas. Smog control requires strengthened cooperation and joint efforts by all regions. In this regard, the government should implement a regional joint prevention and control strategy to actively promote all parties in the society to play their own advantages. In accordance with the characteristics of uneven regional development in my country, key smog control areas have been established. For example, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta are the areas where my country's economy is more developed and the most dense urban agglomerations. At the same time, they are also the areas with the most frequent occurrence of haze.
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