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Factors influencing the burning performance of textiles

by:GESTER Instruments     2021-04-22
The testing methods for the burning performance of textiles include vertical burning method, 45° burning method, horizontal burning method and oxygen index method; according to the different fire sources, they are divided into cigarette ignited smoldering test and flame burning test [1~4]. The burning performance test of the same fabric will have a variety of standards depending on the issuing agency, such as the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the Canadian National Standards Association (CAN/CGSB), and the European Standards Association ( EN), British Standards Institute (BS), German Standards Institute (DIN), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and other textile burning performance test standards, as well as China’s relevant national standards (GB) and textile industry standards (FZ) Wait. Differences in national standards make it possible to use different test methods to evaluate fabrics, and a single burning test method cannot fully reflect the burning performance of certain materials. Multiple test methods should be combined for comprehensive evaluation [5-8]. In the international textile trade, it is often necessary to conduct tests in accordance with the standards set by the textile consuming country and have relevant conformity inspection reports before entering the local market. The United States is a major consumer of Chinese textiles, and it is not uncommon for Chinese textiles exported to the United States to be punished due to unqualified combustion properties. This should arouse the attention of relevant enterprises and testing agencies. The United States has multiple standards for the testing of the flammability of textiles. In order to analyze the influence of test conditions on the test data, this article takes the flammability regulations of textiles made by the United States Product Safety Commission (CPSC)-16 CFR 1610 as an example for testing. analysis. In the process of testing the combustion properties of textiles in accordance with 16 CFR 1610 regulations, many factors will affect the test results. Through careful interpretation of 16CFR 1610, three main influencing factors were selected for analysis, including the cooling time after sample drying in the test sample preparation stage, the dry-cleaning method of the sample dry-cleaning stage, and the water temperature control in the washing stage[8]. 1. Test part 1. The test principle is judged by the burning rate of the fabric: After the textile is in contact with the flame for a certain period of time according to the method specified in 16 CFR1610, the flame is removed and the burning time of a certain length of fabric is measured. The longer the burning time, the better the flame retardant properties of the fabric. 16 The CFR 1610 test adopts the 45° combustion method. In a specific test device, the standard sample that has been dried and then cooled is placed at 45°, and a commercial-grade butane gas flame is used to ignite the lower surface of the standard sample for 1 s, and observe the ignition. Circumstances and record the time required to burn a certain distance. 16 CFR 1610 stipulates that the combustion performance of the sample is measured in two steps, that is, the flammability of the sample in the initial state and the flammability of the sample after the dry cleaning and water washing treatment are determined successively. The fabric is first judged, find the direction with the fastest burning speed, and test the direction with the fastest speed. A total of 5 samples are taken and the average value is taken. The size of each sample is 150 mm×50 mm. The fabrics are classified according to their burning time and burning phenomenon. The burning performance of the fabric is divided into 3 grades: (1) grade 1. For textiles with a smooth surface, it is unlit, or the burning time is ≥3.5 s; for textiles with raised fibers on the surface, it is unlit, or the burning time is> 7 s, or the burning time is 0-7 s, but the base fabric does not burn , But the surface burns quickly; (2) Grade 2. It is not applicable to textiles with a smooth surface; for textiles with raised fibers on the surface, 4 s ≤ burning time ≤ 7 s, and the base fabric burns. (3) Level 3. For textiles with a smooth surface, the burning time is less than 3.5 s; for textiles with raised fibers on the surface, the burning time is less than 4 s, and the base fabric burns. If the original test result belongs to level 1 or level 2, test the washed sample. Belongs to level 3, directly classified to level 3, do not test after washing samples. Test the sample after washing, and take the grade with the poorer results of the two-step combustion.
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