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Factors and indicators affecting the combustion characteristics of fabrics

by:GESTER Instruments     2021-05-05
Because of the small thickness and large specific surface area of u200bu200bcommon fabrics, low-intensity flames can ignite and the flame propagation rate is fast, and it is in direct and close contact with the human body. Therefore, fabric burning is the main cause of fire and death. The evaluation of fabric burning performance is very complicated. The traditional burning test methods include burning test method, limiting oxygen index method, smoke test method, thermal analysis method, cone calorimeter method, etc. 1. Factors affecting the burning characteristics of fabrics: 1. Material: Each fiber material has its own unique burning characteristics, for example, polyester burning has a droplet phenomenon. The different moisture regains of different raw materials will also affect the heat absorption and release during combustion. There are studies on the heat release sequence and total heat release of the six materials of polyester, acrylic, nylon, cotton, linen, silk, and wool during combustion. Research shows that the heat release order of fabrics of different materials in the combustion test is polyester>silk>cotton>linen>silk>acrylic>nylon6. The total heat release per unit mass of the fabric is: cotton>acrylic>nylon 6>polyester>linen>wool>silk. This is because natural fibers have a high moisture regain rate. The heat absorbed at this stage is mainly used to evaporate the moisture contained in the fabric itself, and the fabric begins to emit heat after the fabric heats up to the ignition point. Synthetic fiber has low moisture regain and absorbs less heat for evaporating water. This is also related to the full degree of combustion of the fabric. 2. Fabric organization and weight: In the case of the same fabric material, the shorter the average floating length of the fabric structure, the heavier the fabric weight, and the higher the limit oxygen index of the fabric. 3. Flame-retardant finishing of fabric: After flame-retardant finishing of fabric, its flammability will decrease. 4. Test conditions: The size of the test box affects the oxygen content in the combustion environment. The distance between the test flame and the sample, the length of the flame affects the way the fabric is ignited, and the ignition time directly affects the intensity of the combustion. Therefore, the test of fabric burning performance should be carried out under standard equipment and in accordance with the provisions of the standard to ensure the accuracy of the test results. 2. Indicators to characterize the combustion characteristics of fabrics: 1. The main evaluation indicators in the combustion test method are: continued burning time, smoldering time, and the degree of damage to the surface of the fabric. Under standard test conditions, the shorter the flame burning time and the flameless burning time, the lower the degree of damage, and the better the flame retardant performance of the fabric. 2. Limiting oxygen index: Under the specified test conditions, the minimum concentration of oxygen in the nitrogen-oxygen mixed gas required to keep the material in a burning state. 3. According to the long-term accumulation of various fire data, analyze the smoke and toxicity of the burning material, and its hazards are often more serious than the flame and heat generated during combustion. In the smoke test method, the optical density, maximum smoke density, average smoke rate, light transmittance, and harmful gas content can be obtained by measuring the transmittance and time curve of smoke density to comprehensively evaluate the combustion performance of flame-retardant textiles. 4. Heat release rate. The heat release rate when a material burns, that is, the heat released by the burning of a material per unit time, is the most important fire parameter that characterizes the burning risk of a material in a fire. 3. Commonly used terms of combustion performance: 1. Combustion: When combustible substances leave the fire source, the oxidative exothermic reaction is produced, accompanied by the phenomenon of luminescence in the flameless combustion zone. 2. Burning: When combustible substances come into contact with a fire source, the solid-phase flameless combustion process is accompanied by the phenomenon of luminescence in the combustion zone. 3. Afterburning: After the burning material leaves the fire source, there is still continuous flame burning. 4. Smoldering: After the ignited material leaves the fire source, there is still continuous flameless combustion. 5. Flaming combustion: gas phase combustion with luminescence. 6. Smoke burning: a kind of slow burning phenomenon that is visible without light, usually with smoke. 7. Flame retardant: The material has the characteristics of preventing, slowing down or stopping flaming combustion. 8. Flame spread: the expansion process of the flame front. 9. Damaged length: The maximum length of the damaged area of u200bu200bthe material in the specified direction under the specified test conditions, also known as the carbon length. 10. Ignition temperature: The lowest temperature at which the material starts to burn continuously under the specified test conditions, usually called the ignition point. 11. Pyrolysis: The irreversible chemical decomposition of materials at high temperatures without oxidation. 12. Melting drop: Material is molten drop at high temperature. 13. Carbonization: The process of forming carbon residues during pyrolysis or incomplete combustion of materials. More about Textile Burning Test Equipment: http://www.standard-groups.com/TextileGarment/
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